Version 1 (modified by Gary J. Ferland, 5 years ago) (diff)

contents of new in next release now on NewC13

New in C13

This page summarizes all major changes and improvements to Cloudy that will be included in the next release. You may also view the HotFixes and KnownProblems pages, or return to the main RevisionHistory page.


The -p | -r syntax is now mandatory for all grid and optimizer runs. This was already required for MPI runs, but is now needed for non-MPI runs as well. This change allows better error recovery in non-MPI grid runs. For other types of Cloudy runs the syntax remains unchanged, though the -p | -r syntax can be used there as well. For grid and optimizer runs this is the correct syntax:

non-MPI runs:

/path/to/cloudy.exe [ -p | -r ] <prefix>

MPI runs:

mpirun -np <n> /path/to/cloudy.exe [ -p | -r ] <prefix>

where <prefix> is the name of the input file with the .in extension removed.

The way Cloudy generates its return value has been modified. Also the return value of cdDrive() has been changed from int to bool. This enables us to give a more detailed and reliable overview of what went wrong in a grid run in the save grid output. For users that call Cloudy as a subroutine this implies that they need to modify their main program. See the program in tsuite/programs/template.cpp for the new way of calling Cloudy. Also the parameters of the routine cdGetLineList() have been modified to enable detecting memory leaks. See Hazy 2 for further details.

New commands or options

Cloudy has a new command line flag -h. If you type cloudy.exe -h you will get an overview of all supported command line flags.

All option on save line intensities command to save all lines, including those with zero intensity.

Print Voigt a=xxx command created.

set check energy every zone command created.

The grid command now accepts negative increments, allowing you to move from a high to a low value.

The set atomic data sulphur command has been removed.

The kludge option on the set dielectronic recombination command has been renamed mean.

There is a new command, set dielectronic recombination mean scale, that will multiply the estimates of the dielectronic recombination for ions with not data, by specified scale factors. This provides a simple way to judge the sensitivity of predictions to these uncertain rates.

The set dielectronic recombination Badnell print command is replaced with the print recombination command.

Most set dielectronic recombination options have been removed since we now use the Badnell database exclusively.

The abundances GASS10 command allows Cloudy to use the solar abundances from Grevesse et al. (2010).

The set collisional ionization X command has two options: Dima or Hybrid.

The set chianti levels X Y command sets the maximum number of Chianti energy levels to use for iron species, X, and all other species, Y.

The save cooling each command created to indicate the contribution of each element to the total cooling.

The save line list command now has a column option to report the results in column rather than row output. The results are the linear quantity rather than the log.

The save species labels command creates a list of the labels we use for atoms, ions, and molecules.

The Chianti, Stout, and Lamda databases are now controlled by the atom command. Adjust their use with atom Chianti, atom Stout, and atom Lamda.

The save line data command accepts the units option.

The range option on the save fine optical depths, save fine opacity, and save fine continuum commands now recognizes the units option.

The set electron fraction command sets the electron density to a fraction of the hydrogen density.

Grain physics

Two new refractive index files ph3n.rfi and ph3c.rfi have been added. These produce the opacities of neutral and charged PAHs, resp., following the prescription of Draine, B.T. & Li, A., 2007 ApJ, 657, 810. These files are temporary and will eventually be replaced by a single file that self-consistently determines the opacity from the actual charge of the PAH during execution. This however requires substantial changes to the code that are not yet complete. To produce opacity files from these refractive index files, you can e.g. use:

compile grains "ph3n.rfi" "ab08.szd" 10
compile grains "ph3c.rfi" "ab08.szd" 10

when inside the Cloudy data directory.

Stellar grids and other SEDS

We have added support for the Rauch C/O white dwarf grid using the table star rauch co wd command.

The table Crab command now uses the SED from Hester (2008 ARA&A). The old SED, based on Davidson (1985 ARA&A) is available with the table Crab Davidson command.

The keywords stellar and nebular have been added to the compile stars command for Starburst99 files. The effect is to use only the stellar or the nebular component of the interstellar radiation field, rather than the sum of the two. The latter remains the default.

Improved physics and numerical methods

Cosmic ray background ionization rate updated to Indriolo+07.

Ryan add quadrupole transitions for He I. TO DO

We have added 31 new molecules from the CDMS and JPL molecular spectroscopy databases.

The dielectronic and radiative recombination databases have been updated to the April 2011 versions on the Badnell web site. This includes the updated Argon isoelectronic sequence (Nikolic et al, 2010, A&A 516, A97).

The Badnell dielectronic recombiantion rates are updated to Abdel-Naby et al A&A v537, A40 (2012). This does the 13 electron iso sequence. Lines of S IV and S III are affected.

The Badnell dielectronic and radiative recombination database are now used exclusively.

We are now using the hybrid collisional ionization rate coefficients by default. Hybrid means that the original rates given by Voronov, G. S. 1997, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables, 65, 1 are multiplied by a scale factor. This scale factor is the collisional ionization rate coefficient at the center of the discrete temperature range given by Dere, K. P. 2007, A&A, 466, 771 divided by the collisional ionization rate coefficient given by Voronov at the same temperature.

The Chianti line database is now used for Fe VI through Fe XXIV and select species between phosphorus and zinc.

Enhancements for time-dependent cases

Other changes

Solar Abundances updated to Grevesse et al. (2010).

Mean line optical depths are now printed in the main output. Previously we had printed line center optical depths.

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