Changes between Version 2 and Version 3 of TracCgi


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Timestamp:
2017-08-28T06:33:43Z (4 weeks ago)
Author:
trac
Comment:

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  • TracCgi

    v2 v3  
    1 = Installing Trac as CGI =
     1= Installing Trac as CGI
     2[[TracGuideToc]]
     3[[PageOutline]]
    24
    3 To install Trac as a CGI script, you need to make the `trac.cgi` executable as a CGI by your web server.
    4 
    5   ''Please note that using Trac via CGI is significantly slower than any other deployment method, such as [TracModPython mod_python] or [TracFastCgi FastCGI].''
    6 
    7 If you're using [http://httpd.apache.org/ Apache HTTPD], there are a couple ways to do that:
    8 
    9  1. Use a `ScriptAlias` to map a URL to the `trac.cgi` script
    10  2. Copy the `trac.cgi` file into the directory for CGI executables used by your web server (commonly named `cgi-bin`). You can also create a symbolic link, but in that case make sure that the `FollowSymLinks` option is enabled for the `cgi-bin` directory.
    11 
    12 The first option is recommended as it also allows you to map the CGI to a friendly URL.
    13 
    14 Now, edit the Apache configuration file and add this snippet, file names and locations changed to match your installation:
    15 {{{
    16 ScriptAlias /trac /usr/share/trac/cgi-bin/trac.cgi
     5{{{#!div class=important
     6 ''Please note that using Trac via CGI is the slowest deployment method available. It is slower than [wiki:TracModWSGI mod_wsgi], [TracModPython mod_python], [TracFastCgi FastCGI] and even [trac:TracOnWindowsIisAjp IIS/AJP] on Windows.''
    177}}}
    188
    19  ''Note that this directive requires the `mod_alias` module to be installed and enabled.''
     9CGI script is the entrypoint that web-server calls when a web-request to an application is made. The `trac.cgi` script can be created using the `trac-admin <env> deploy <dir>` command which automatically substitutes the required paths, see TracInstall#cgi-bin. Make sure the script is executable by your web server.
     10
     11== Apache web-server configuration
     12
     13In [http://httpd.apache.org/ Apache] there are two ways to run Trac as CGI:
     14
     15 1. Use a `ScriptAlias` directive that maps a URL to the `trac.cgi` script (recommended)
     16 1. Copy the `trac.cgi` file into the directory for CGI executables used by your web server (commonly named `cgi-bin`). You can also create a symbolic link, but in that case make sure that the `FollowSymLinks` option is enabled for the `cgi-bin` directory.
     17
     18To make Trac available at `http://yourhost.example.org/trac` add `ScriptAlias` directive to Apache configuration file, changing `trac.cgi` path to match your installation:
     19{{{#!apache
     20ScriptAlias /trac /path/to/www/trac/cgi-bin/trac.cgi
     21}}}
     22
     23 ''Note that this directive requires that the `mod_alias` module is enabled.''
    2024
    2125If you're using Trac with a single project you need to set its location using the `TRAC_ENV` environment variable:
    22 {{{
     26{{{#!apache
    2327<Location "/trac">
    2428  SetEnv TRAC_ENV "/path/to/projectenv"
     
    2731
    2832Or to use multiple projects you can specify their common parent directory using the `TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR` variable:
    29 {{{
     33{{{#!apache
    3034<Location "/trac">
    3135  SetEnv TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR "/path/to/project/parent/dir"
     
    3337}}}
    3438
    35  ''Note that the `SetEnv` directive requires the `mod_env` module to be installed and enable. If not, you could set TRAC_ENV in trac.cgi. Just add the following code between "try:" and "from trac.web ...":''
     39  ''Note that the `SetEnv` directive requires that the `mod_env` module is enabled.''
    3640
    37 {{{
    38     import os
     41An alternative to `SetEnv` is editing `TRAC_ENV` or `TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR` in `trac.cgi`:
     42
     43{{{#!python
    3944    os.environ['TRAC_ENV'] = "/path/to/projectenv"
    4045}}}
    4146
    42  '' Or for TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR: ''
    43 
    44 {{{
    45     import os
    46     os.environ['TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR'] = "/path/to/project/parent/dir"
     47{{{#!python
     48    os.environ['TRAC_ENV_PARENT_DIR'] = "/path/to/parent/dir"
    4749}}}
    4850
    49 This will make Trac available at `http://yourhost.example.org/trac`.
     51If you are using the [http://httpd.apache.org/docs/suexec.html Apache suEXEC] feature please see [trac:ApacheSuexec].
    5052
    51 If you are using the [http://httpd.apache.org/docs/suexec.html Apache suEXEC] feature please see [http://trac.edgewall.org/wiki/ApacheSuexec].
     53On some systems, you ''may'' need to edit the shebang line in the `trac.cgi` file to point to your real Python installation path. On a Windows system you may need to configure Windows to know how to execute a `.cgi` file (Explorer -> Tools -> Folder Options -> File Types -> CGI).
    5254
    53 On some systems, you ''may'' need to edit the shebang line in the `trac.cgi` file to point to your real Python installation path. On a Windows system you may need to configure Windows to know how to execute a .cgi file (Explorer -> Tools -> Folder Options -> File Types -> CGI).
     55=== Python Egg Cache
    5456
    55 == Mapping Static Resources ==
    56 
    57 Out of the box, Trac will serve static resources such as style sheets or images itself. For a CGI setup, though, this is highly undesirable, because it results in the CGI script being invoked for documents that could be much more efficiently served by the web server directly.
    58 
    59 Web servers such as [http://httpd.apache.org/ Apache HTTPD] allow you to create “Aliases” to resources, thereby giving them a virtual URL that doesn't necessarily bear any resemblance to the layout of the servers file system. We already used this capability above when defining a `ScriptAlias` for the CGI script, and we'll use it now to map requests to the static resources to the directory on the file system that contains them, thereby bypassing the processing of such requests by the CGI script.
    60 
    61 Edit the Apache configuration file again and add the following snippet '''before''' the `ScriptAlias` for the CGI script , file names and locations changed to match your installation:
    62 {{{
    63 Alias /trac/chrome/common /usr/share/trac/htdocs
    64 <Directory "/usr/share/trac/htdocs">
    65   Order allow,deny
    66   Allow from all
    67 </Directory>
     57The [TracInstall#egg-cache egg-cache] can be configured using an `os.environ` statement in `trac.cgi`, as shown above.
     58To do the same from the Apache configuration, use the `SetEnv` directive:
     59{{{#!apache
     60SetEnv PYTHON_EGG_CACHE /path/to/dir
    6861}}}
    6962
    70 Note that whatever URL path you mapped the `trac.cgi` script to, the path `/chrome/common` is the path you have to append to that location to intercept requests to the static resources.
     63Put this directive next to where you set the path to the [TracEnvironment Trac environment], i.e. in the same `<Location>` block.
    7164
    72 For example, if Trac is mapped to `/cgi-bin/trac.cgi` on your server, the URL of the Alias should be `/cgi-bin/trac.cgi/chrome/common`.
    73 
    74 Similarly, if you have static resources in a projects htdocs directory, you can configure apache to serve those resources (again, put this '''before''' the `ScriptAlias` for the CGI script, and adjust names and locations to match your installation):
    75 
    76 {{{
    77 Alias /trac/chrome/site /path/to/projectenv/htdocs
    78 <Directory "/path/to/projectenv/htdocs">
    79   Order allow,deny
    80   Allow from all
    81 </Directory>
     65{{{#!apache
     66 <Location /trac>
     67   SetEnv TRAC_ENV /path/to/projenv
     68   SetEnv PYTHON_EGG_CACHE /path/to/dir
     69 </Location>
    8270}}}
    8371
    84 Alternatively, you can set the `htdocs_location` configuration option in [wiki:TracIni trac.ini]:
    85 {{{
    86 [trac]
    87 htdocs_location = /trac-htdocs
    88 }}}
    89 
    90 Trac will then use this URL when embedding static resources into HTML pages. Of course, you still need to make the Trac `htdocs` directory available through the web server at the specified URL, for example by copying (or linking) the directory into the document root of the web server:
    91 {{{
    92 $ ln -s /usr/share/trac/htdocs /var/www/your_site.com/htdocs/trac-htdocs
    93 }}}
    94 
    95 Note that in order to get this `htdocs` directory, you need first to extract the relevant Trac resources using the `copystatic` command of TracAdmin:
    96 [[TracAdminHelp(copystatic)]]
    9772
    9873
    99 == Adding Authentication ==
     74=== Using WSGI
    10075
    101 The simplest way to enable authentication with Apache is to create a password file. Use the `htpasswd` program to create the password file:
    102 {{{
    103 $ htpasswd -c /somewhere/trac.htpasswd admin
    104 New password: <type password>
    105 Re-type new password: <type password again>
    106 Adding password for user admin
    107 }}}
     76You can run a [http://henry.precheur.org/python/how_to_serve_cgi WSGI handler] [http://pythonweb.org/projects/webmodules/doc/0.5.3/html_multipage/lib/example-webserver-web-wsgi-simple-cgi.html under CGI].  You can [wiki:TracModWSGI#Thetrac.wsgiscript write your own application function], or use the deployed trac.wsgi's application.
    10877
    109 After the first user, you dont need the "-c" option anymore:
    110 {{{
    111 $ htpasswd /somewhere/trac.htpasswd john
    112 New password: <type password>
    113 Re-type new password: <type password again>
    114 Adding password for user john
    115 }}}
     78== Mapping Static Resources
    11679
    117   ''See the man page for `htpasswd` for full documentation.''
     80See TracInstall#MappingStaticResources.
    11881
    119 After you've created the users, you can set their permissions using TracPermissions.
     82== Adding Authentication
    12083
    121 Now, you'll need to enable authentication against the password file in the Apache configuration:
    122 {{{
    123 <Location "/trac/login">
    124   AuthType Basic
    125   AuthName "Trac"
    126   AuthUserFile /somewhere/trac.htpasswd
    127   Require valid-user
    128 </Location>
    129 }}}
    130 
    131 If you're hosting multiple projects you can use the same password file for all of them:
    132 {{{
    133 <LocationMatch "/trac/[^/]+/login">
    134   AuthType Basic
    135   AuthName "Trac"
    136   AuthUserFile /somewhere/trac.htpasswd
    137   Require valid-user
    138 </LocationMatch>
    139 }}}
    140 
    141 For better security, it is recommended that you either enable SSL or at least use the “Digest” authentication scheme instead of “Basic”. Please read the [http://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.0/ Apache HTTPD documentation] to find out more. For example, on a Debian 4.0r1 (etch) system the relevant section  in apache configuration can look like this:
    142 {{{
    143 <Location "/trac/login">
    144     LoadModule auth_digest_module /usr/lib/apache2/modules/mod_auth_digest.so
    145     AuthType Digest
    146     AuthName "trac"
    147     AuthDigestDomain /trac
    148     AuthDigestFile /somewhere/trac.htpasswd
    149     Require valid-user
    150 </Location>
    151 }}}
    152 and you'll have to create your .htpasswd file with htdigest instead of htpasswd as follows:
    153 {{{
    154 # htdigest /somewhere/trac.htpasswd trac admin
    155 }}}
    156 where the "trac" parameter above is the same as !AuthName above  ("Realm" in apache-docs).
     84See TracInstall#ConfiguringAuthentication.
    15785
    15886----
    159 See also:  TracGuide, TracInstall, TracFastCgi, TracModPython
     87See also:  TracInstall, [wiki:TracModWSGI], TracFastCgi, TracModPython